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CASE REPORTS
Monitoring and epidemiological trends of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) around the world
Arnab Saha, Komal Gupta, Manti Patil, Urvashi
October-December 2020, 4(4):121-126
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_16_20  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has struck fear into populaces all through the world and shocked the worldwide restorative community, with the World Health Organization pronouncing it a widespread as it were approximately 3 months after the flare-up of the infection. A new different virus (primarily called “novel coronavirus 2019 [nCoV]”) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread to other parts of China and other countries around the world. The outbreak of the nCoV disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 850,000 people infected and approx. 40,000 of deaths in more than 190 countries up to March 2020, extremely affecting economic and social development. Presently, the number of infections and deaths is still increasing rapidly. COVID-19 seriously threatens human health, production, life, social functioning, and international relations. In the fight against COVID-19, geographic information systems (GIS) and big data technologies have played an important role in many aspects. This article describes the usage of practical GIS and mapping dashboards and applications for monitoring the coronavirus epidemic and related activities as they spread around the world. At the fact level, in the generation of massive data, information no longer come on the whole from the authorities but are gathered from greater diverse enterprises. As of now and for a long time in future, the improvement of GIS should be fortified to create a data-driven framework for fast information securing, which implies that GIS ought to be utilized to fortify the social operation parameterization of models and methods, particularly when giving back for social administration.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of harmattan season on human health in Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Ibrahim Sufiyan, KD Mohammed, Innocent E Bello, I Zaharadeen
April-June 2020, 4(2):44-50
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_1_20  
Background: Once the year comes to end, around late November up to February, there prevails the dry cold wind originated from the Sahara Desert in North Africa toward the West African countries called Harmattan. The Harmattan season has adverse effects on human health and comfort. There is a wide spread of airborne diseases coupled with the dryness of human skin. Small children are mostly dehydrated. Aim and Objectives: This study focused on the impacts of the Harmattan season in Keffi town, Nasarawa state, Nigeria, on human health. Materials and Methods: The use of correlation and regression analysis is employed to analyse the data. It also involved the collection of data from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. The field survey also confined about 100 respondents. Result: The results indicate a positive correlation between the Harmattan and its impact on human health, with about 0.64. The climate and anthropogenic factors are mostly the responsible factors influencing the high prevalence of Harmattan. Conclusion: Nevertheless, there is the good side of the Harmattan season, such as the lowering of environmental temperature and some crops enjoy the cold season.
  3 7,142 148
Antibiogram of blood culture isolates of patients from a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abdur Rouf Mia, Tamanna Zerin
January-March 2020, 4(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_4_19  
Background: In Bangladesh, bloodstream infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and empirical treatment based on clinical symptoms. Patient's final outcome might be improved with detailed and organized surveillance studies on bloodstream isolates and their resistance. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted with a total of 520 suspected bacteremia patients from December 2017 to November 2018. Results: Approximately 60% and 49% of the suspected cases were male and in the age group 17–50 years, respectively, with increasing prevalence found from May 2018 to November 2018, whereas, highest was found in July 2018. Only 11.15% of the patients showed blood culture positive outcomes with 74% were Gram-negative and 26% were Gram-positive. Highest drug resistance was found with azithromycin against all the isolates, except for Staphylococcus aureus that showed 50% resistance. Among 58 isolates, 57 and 56 isolates were found sensitive to imipenem and amikacin, respectively. However, all the tested isolates were found 100% sensitive against fourth generation, cefepime, and piperacillin/tazobactam. There were no isolates completely resistant to all the antibiotics tested. It is alarming that 22.41% of the isolates were found multidrug resistant. Conclusion: We expect our present work will be helpful for health-care personnel to provide improved treatment, as well as the researcher and policymakers from hospital and government to take a step in reducing the irrational antibiotic practice.
  2 2,002 235
LETTER TO EDITOR
Pterostilbene caffeine co-crystal: Bioavailable caffeine alternative enriched with pterostilbene
Roopesh Jain
January-March 2020, 4(1):24-26
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_27_19  
  1 1,945 144
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of aerobics combined with strength training intervention on invisible obese college students
Q Liu
April-June 2020, 4(2):32-34
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_10_19  
Objectives: The objective of the study was to discuss the influence of the intervention program of strength training on the hidden obese college students on the basis of aerobics movement. Methods: By means of the voluntary principle, 28 college students with invisibility obesity were selected from the test instruments, such as height and weight, and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group, each of which was 14. The control group adopted a routine training program, and the observation group adopted aerobics and strength training intervention program for 6 weeks. Moreover, the physical form, physical quality, and so on of the two groups of invisible obese college social workers were observed. Results: The body composition, skinfold thickness, strength, and flexibility of college students were significantly better than those in the control group. Compared with before training, the improvement effect is very obvious, and the difference is significant (P < 0.05). However, in the body circumference and the lung activity, the improvement was not obvious (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Aerobics combined with strength training intervention can improve the body composition of invisible obese college students, improve strength and muscle content, and can improve flexibility. Moreover, the impact is very obvious.
  1 1,248 142
Effect of whey protein on aerobic exercise ability of football players
JW Li, LL Sun
January-June 2019, 3(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_23_19  
Objectives: The objective is to discuss the effects of whey protein on the aerobic exercise ability of football players. Methods: A total of 36 college football players were randomly divided into control group and observation group. Eighteen cases in the control group were given pure water for athletes, and 18 in the observation group were given whey protein which was used as an athlete's supplementary ability. The two groups of footballers were given 8 weeks of physical training, and the athletes needed additional energy within 1 h before and after training. The physical fitness test and blood biochemical index of the two groups of football players were observed and recorded. Results: Compared with the control group, the erythrocyte function of the observation group was more significant, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of physical fitness test in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The application of whey protein to soccer players can strengthen the protection of erythrocyte function and has certain application value.
  1 2,110 188
Effect of oral creatine on anaerobic sports ability of soccer players
C Wand
July-December 2019, 3(2):31-33
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_11_19  
Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the effect of oral creatine on the anaerobic exercise ability of soccer players. Methods: Twenty healthy football players in five football teams were selected as the study participants, and they were randomly divided into the observation group and control group, each of which was 10. The football players in the control group were given glucose at a rate of 5 g/time, and the members of the observation group were given creatine glucose at a rate of 5 g/time and the supplementation of the two groups was 5 g × 4 when they have their meals and before bedtime. During the period, the training of the football players is normal. Moreover, the blood lactic acid and oxygen-free work of the two groups were compared. Results: After having oral creatine, the peak of oxygen-free work of the observation group was significantly increased, which was obviously superior to the control group without oral creatine. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). After having oral creatine, the lactate level of 3 min in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group after exercise, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: After the oral creatine is taken orally, the peak of the oxygen-free work, the explosive force and the action quality of the football player can be improved. Significantly, it can increase the speed of movement fatigue recovery and it is worth popularizing.
  1 2,178 236
Effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on serum brain-derived neurotropic factor level, C-reactive protein, and zinc level in patients with depression
Y Zhi, JX Wu, SJ Guo, SS Xie, XT Zhou
July-December 2019, 3(2):44-47
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_18_19  
Objectives: To apply the acupuncture and moxibustion to the treatment of patients with depression and study the serum brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) level, C-reactive protein (CRP), and zinc level in the patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients with depression treated in our hospital were selected as the research individuals, and they were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. Seventeen patients in the control group were treated with head massage and 18 patients in the observation group were treated with acupuncture. The levels of BDNF, CRP, and zinc were measured and recorded by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The levels of BDNF in serum BDNF in the control group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and there was a significant difference between the two groups in serum BDNF levels (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the CRP decreased significantly in the observation group, and there was significant difference in the CRP between the two groups (P < 0.05). The level of zinc in the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, and there was a significant difference in the level of zinc in the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion can effectively reduce the level of serum BDNF in patients, the level of zinc, and CRP, which has a certain value of research.
  1 1,353 148
Trends in antibiotic resistance of major uropathogens
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani
October-December 2020, 4(4):108-111
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_24_20  
Background: Around the world, there is no population clear from urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among women. UTI is considered the most predominant bacterial infection. This study aimed to detect the incidence of the most common major uropathogens in patients severe from UTI with antibiotic-sensitivity tests that assist urologist doctors for appropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was carried in a private laboratory in Babil city, Iraq, from May 2019 to May 2020. A total of 70 individuals suffering from the clear symptoms of UTI, as well as, 20 healthy persons participated in this study as a control group. Then, the standard microbiological methods carried out to isolate and identify the the bacterial species. Antimicrobial-susceptibility tests were performed using different antimicrobial discs by applying the Kirby–Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Totally, 90 specimens were obtained from them 20 control group, 19 with no growth, and 51 patients with bacterial growth distributed as 43 (83%) females and 8 (17%) males. Escherichia coli were the most common predominant organisms. All isolates were showed a high rate of resistance to evaluated cephalosporins 100% and 82% to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively, while very low resistance recorded in aminoglycosides 20% and 13% to Gentamicin and amikacin, respectively. Most age group infected with UTI was 21–40 year-old. Conclusion: The current study showed an increasing burden of UTI caused by various bacteria implicated in UTI that causes changeable sensitivity to various antimicrobial agents. Therefore, in clinical use appropriate medications should be selected based on the data obtained from antimicrobial-susceptibility tests.
  1 1,350 103
REVIEW ARTICLE
Performing Laryngotracheobronchial Procedure in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A highly Aerosol Generating Event in Clinical Practice
Santosh Kumar Swain, Ishwar Chandra Behera
January-March 2021, 5(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_38_20  
The current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).COVID-19 is presenting a significant challenges to the surgical specialties specifically otolaryngologists and head and neck specialties those are dealing with upper airway such as larynx, trachea, and bronchus. The traditional airway procedure like microlaryngeal surgery, tracheostomy, and bronchoscopy are highly aerosol generating surgery often managed by otolaryngologists. The laryngotracheobronchial airway has a high viral density and so it is expected to expel more transmission of the infections in COVID-19 pandemic. This is why the otolaryngologists or laryngologists are more vulnerable medical professional in this dreaded pandemic. Surgeons have high risk for getting the infections during examinations or surgical procedure on the laryngotracheobronchial airway. The surgical interventions should adopt adequate precautions to limit the viral dissemination. Effective management of the suspicious or positive cases of COVID-19 required careful consideration for the safety of the surgeons and associated team members for ensuring the best possible care of the patients. This review article will provide an overview of common methods to limit the viral transmission to the otolaryngologists/surgeons and assisting health care staffs from COVID-19 infections during management of the laryngotracheobronchial airway.
  1 1,245 108
REVIEW ARTICLES
Bone grafts in periodontics
VR Balaji, D Manikandan, A Ramsundar
July-September 2020, 4(3):57-63
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_2_19  
Bone replacement in materials had been used in a wide variety of surgical approaches. The use of such bone grafts for reconstructing osseous defects is the choice of periodontist, which significantly improves the clinical outcome in regeneration procedures. It increases the bone formation and quality of vital bone. A wide range of bone grafting materials, have been applied and evaluated clinically, including autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts. It substitutes as a basic building block for the periodontal reconstruction, by providing clinical application with its biological functions. This review insight various use of bone graft materials and its characteristic features in promoting its bone formation and emphasis on recent advances in this field.
  1 5,112 586
The possible role of immunoglobulin A monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19 infection
Raghdah Maytham Hameed, Mohanad Kadhim Mirdan Al-Ibraheemi, Falah Hasan Obayes Al-Khikani, Noor Flayyih Hasan, Huda Ali Salman Almosawey, Atyaf Ali Al-Asadi
October-December 2020, 4(4):96-102
DOI:10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_27_20  
The coronavirus adheres to the nasal ciliated epithelium and replicates before transporting it to the nasopharynx. Immunopathogenesis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are influenced by viral and immune system factors. COVID-19 infection is capable of producing an excessive immune reaction in the host that called a cytokine storm. The effect is extensive tissue destruction. Detection and monitoring of the immunopathological changes in patients with COVID-19 may provide potential targets for drug development and discovery, besides it is necessary for clinical management. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody class present at mucosal surfaces, including the upper respiratory tract, providing the first line of defense in mucosal immunity at the primary site of virus infection. Secretory IgA neutralizes the virus without causing inflammation because of its inability to fix and activate the complement cascade. Hence, it is suggested that induction of the mucosal immune response is more desirable to prevent respiratory infection to avoid unregulated inflammatory innate responses and impaired adaptive immune responses that may lead to locally and systemically harmful tissue damage. The advantage of IgA for protecting mucosal surfaces, such as the respiratory tract, relates to the presence of a specialized mechanism for transporting oligomeric IgA across epithelial surfaces.
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