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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 53-54

Coronavirus disease-2019 infection among people living with noncommunicable diseases: Improving the prognosis


1 Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission01-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance19-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication26-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_37_20

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  Abstract 


The ongoing Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection tends to affect all age-groups, while the development of the serious complications, including mortality has been reported among elderly people and those with pre-existing chronic illnesses. The available evidence suggests that any age group person living with any of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can get infected by COVID-19. Keeping the prognosis of the patients with pre-existing NCDs, it is important that the practice of smoking should be discouraged by them. In conclusion, the people living with non-communicable diseases tends to develop serious pulmonary complications secondary to the acquisition of COVID-19 infection. Thus, it is the responsibility of these people to strictly adhere to the prevention measures, while the health professionals should understand their vulnerability and provide additional care while managing them to save their lives.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, non-communicable diseases, world health organization


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Coronavirus disease-2019 infection among people living with noncommunicable diseases: Improving the prognosis. Matrix Sci Med 2021;5:53-4

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Coronavirus disease-2019 infection among people living with noncommunicable diseases: Improving the prognosis. Matrix Sci Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 16];5:53-4. Available from: https://www.matrixscimed.org/text.asp?2021/5/3/53/322330




  Introduction Top


The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) infection tends to affect all age groups, while the development of the serious complications, including mortality has been reported among elderly people and those with preexisting chronic illnesses.[1] As of now, a total of 17,106,007 cases and 668,910 deaths has been attributed to the infection worldwide across the 216 nations and territories wherein the cases of the disease have been reported.[2] It is important to note that the case fatality rate of the infection has increased to 3.9%, while in terms of distribution, the European and the American region are the most affected.[2]

Clinical outcomes of COVID-19

The findings of a clinical outcome study reported that 32 (61.5%) of the 52 critically ill patients of COVID 19 who were admitted in the intensive care unit lost their lives to the infection.[3] On further analysis, it was found that diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were the comorbidities among the majority of the patients who succumbed to the infection.[3] In another large sample sized study, it was reported that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart diseases, and cerebrovascular disease were the preexisting illnesses among the confirmed cases of the disease.[4] These findings clearly suggest the fact that the probability of acquiring the infection or landing up into severe complications gets significantly enhanced by the simultaneous presence of a noncommunicable disease (NCDs) in the individual.[3],[4]

NCDs and COVID-19

Moreover, the available evidence suggests that any age group person living with NCDs can get infected by COVID 19. However, the risk to develop serious complications increases enormously if the age of the person is more than 60 years. In terms of the management, the health care professionals should tailor made the treatment plan based on the preexisting comorbidity and take a call about the medications which needs to be continued and which needs to be temporarily stopped.[5] It is extremely crucial to communicate about the prognosis with the patient and family members right at the start of the treatment and keep them informed about the progression of illness. Further, people living with NCDs should continue to take their medications as per the treating doctors' advice, maintain adequate stock of their medicines, practice physical and social distancing, stay indoors, frequently wash their hands with soap and water, and take measures to maintain their mental well being.[4],[6]

Suggested recommendations

Keeping the prognosis of the patients with pre existing NCDs, it is important that the practice of smoking should be discouraged by them as well as the people without any NCDs. This should be noted as smoking has not only been linked to a reduction in the lung capacity and poor treatment outcomes(requiring ventilatory support), but also enhances the chance of the transmission of the infection as the contaminated fingers often come in contact with the lips in the act of smoking.[5] Amidst all these risks and ever rising incidence of the disease, it is crucial for people to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including consuming healthy diets comprising of plenty of fruits and vegetables, quit smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and ensuring adequate sleep and being physically active.[1],[5],[6]


  Conclusion Top


In conclusion, the people living with NCDs tend to develop serious pulmonary complications secondary to the acquisition of COVID 19 infection. Thus, it is the responsibility of these people to strictly adhere to the prevention measures, while the health professionals should understand their vulnerability and provide additional care while managing them to save their lives.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:e21.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 193; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200731-covid-19-sitrep-193.pdf?sfvrsn=42a0221d_4. [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 01].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:475-81.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1708-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pan American Health Organization. COVID-19 & Health Topics-Information Note on COVID-19 and Noncommunicable Diseases; 2020. Available from: https://www.paho.org/en/topics/coronavirus-infections/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/covid-19-health-topics. [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 01].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hussain A, Bhowmik B, do Vale Moreira NC. COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020;162:108142.  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

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