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Table of Contents
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-29

Dermatophytosis and the Role of Enzymes in Pathogenesis

Department of Microbiology, Al-Shomalli General Hospital, Babil, Iraq

Date of Submission05-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance23-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Falah Hasan Obayes Al-Khikani
Department of Microbiology, Al- Shomalli General Hospital, Babil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_23_20

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How to cite this article:
Obayes Al-Khikani FH. Dermatophytosis and the Role of Enzymes in Pathogenesis. Matrix Sci Med 2021;5:28-9

How to cite this URL:
Obayes Al-Khikani FH. Dermatophytosis and the Role of Enzymes in Pathogenesis. Matrix Sci Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 15];5:28-9. Available from: https://www.matrixscimed.org/text.asp?2021/5/1/28/306853

Skin infections due to dermatophytes are distributed worldwide and there is no population can be cleared from infection with dermatophytosis. Dermatophytes have the ability to cause a cutaneous skin disease called dermatophytosis. This disease considers a common fungal infection in different parts of the human body, which are enrichment with keratin, especial hair, skin, and nail. Dermatophyte revolutions appeared strongly as significant rising trend of this infection, especially in the last years,[1] with emerging of antimicrobial resistance like most other pathogens.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

Skin tissue infection involves several phases, i.e., adhesion to the skin surface, invasion of the sublayers by penetration of fungal elements, and secretion of enzymes, which degrade the skin components. Proteinase hydrolysis of keratin is an essential feature of fungal pathogenesis, offering a source of nutrients on the outer layer of the skin, which would usually be a deterrent to pathogens.[7]

The ability of dermatophytes to use keratin protein, the main protein constituent of the hair, nails, and skin, is related to its production of a proteolytic keratinase.[8] However, more than twenty types of protease can be produced by dermatophytes that play a role in the invasion of keratinized structure and cause infection, but the role of them as a virulence factor is not specific.[9] Other enzymes may be used by dermatophytes for skin destruction processes such as alkaline phosphatase and N acetyl beta glucosaminidase.[10]

For parasitic growth of dermatophytes, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, and leucine arylamidase may be significant. Full dermatophyte enzymatic function tends to be associated with the severity of cutaneous inflammation.[11]

The ability of dermatophytes to produce various proteins or enzymes plays an important role to invade keratinous skin layers. Keratinases, adhesins, lipases, phosphatases, DNases, and nonspecifi proteases are important enzymes give the fungi the ability to attach and penetrate the stratum corneum of the skin.[12] Keratinase, gelatinase, and elastase found to be produced by 96%, 14%, and 23% respectively of clinical dermatophytes isolates.[13] The acidic nature of the skin stimulates dermatophyte to produce sensing transcription factors to raise fungi adapting to this acidic pH and give them time to increase pH value after keratin degradation for elevating protease enzyme activity.[12]

In addition to their capacity to induce cutaneous inflammation, exoenzymes produced by specific dermatophytes are thought to contribute to fungal spread[11] worldwide distribution like some other diseases.[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19]

The usage of animal model will consider a fundamental step for in vivo evaluation the pathogenesis of enzymes produced by dermatophytes.[20],[21],[22]

  Conclusion Top

Enzymes play an important role in dermatophyte pathogenesis that may be used as diagnostic tests to differentiate different species of dermatophytes, also understanding the action of these enzymes give us crucial data to fight these fungi as well as preventing and control dermatophyte infection spreading.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

AL-Khikani FH. Dermatophytosis a worldwide contiguous fungal infection: Growing challenge and few solutions. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:22-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
AL-Khikani FH. Pulmonary mycoses treated by topical amphotericin B. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
AL-Khikani FH. Refractory Fungal Vaginitis Treated By Topical Amphotericin B. Review. Medical Science of Ukraine (MSU). 2020;16:55-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
AL-Khikani FH. Challenges in fungal treatment: A serious public health problem. Indian J Med Specialities 2020;11:77-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
AL-Khikani FH. The forgotten role of methenamine to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: Urgency for reuse 100 years after discovery. Pharm Biomed Res 2020;6:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
Obayes AL-Khikani FH, Kadim BJ, Ayit AS, Abidalali MH. Evaluation Cephalosporins Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated Clinically. World News of Natural Sciences. 2020;31:110-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Kaufman G, Horwitz BA, Duek L, Ullman Y, Berdicevsky I. Infection stages of the dermatophyte pathogen Trichophyton: Microscopic characterization and proteolytic enzymes. Med Mycol 2007;45:149-55.  Back to cited text no. 7
AL-Janabi AA. Dermatophytosis: Causes, clinical features, signs and treatment. J Symptoms Signs2014;3:200-3.  Back to cited text no. 8
Achterman RR, White TC. Dermatophyte virulence factors: Identifying and analyzing genes that may contribute to chronic or acute skin infections. Int J Microbiol 2012;2012:358305.  Back to cited text no. 9
Brasch J, Martins BS, Christophers E. Enzyme release by Trichophyton rubrum depends on nutritional conditions. Mycoses 1991;34:365-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
Brasch J, Zaldua M. Enzyme patterns of dermatophytes. Mycoses 1994;37:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
Martinez-Rossi NM, Persinoti GF, Peres NT, Rossi A. Role of pH in the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis. Mycoses. 2012;55:381-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Gnat S, Łagowski D, Nowakiewicz A, Zięba P. Phenotypic characterization of enzymatic activity of clinical dermatophyte isolates from animals with and without skin lesions and humans. J Appl Microbiol 2018;125:700-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
AL-Khikani FH, Abadi RM, Ayit AS. Emerging carbapenemase Klebsiella oxytoca with multidrug resistance implicated in urinary tract infection. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:76-80.  Back to cited text no. 14
AL-Khikani FH, Auda Ga, Ayit AS. Correlation study between urinary tract bacterial infection and some acute inflammatory responses. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:236-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
  [Full text]  
AL-Khikani FH. Surveillance 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spreading: Is a terrifying pandemic outbreak is soon? Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:81-2.  Back to cited text no. 16
AL-Khikani FH. The role of blood group in COVID-19 infection: More information is needed. J Nat Sci Med 2020;3:66-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
AL-Khikani FH. Epidemiological and diagnostic studies for the surveillance of Entamoeba moshkovskii. Hamdan Med J 2020;13:78-81.  Back to cited text no. 18
AL-Khikani FH, almosawey HA, Hameed RM, alhussain BA, Ayit AS, Al-Ibraheemi Mk, et al. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia associated with infectious diarrhea in AlShomally population, Babil, Iraq. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:245-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
  [Full text]  
Al Janabi AA, Al Khikani FH. Dermatophytoses: A short definition, pathogenesis, and treatment. International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 2020;9:211.  Back to cited text no. 20
AL-Khikani F. Amphotericin B is the wonder of today's pharmacology science: persisting usage over seventh decades. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 2020;6:77-83  Back to cited text no. 21
Al Janabi AA, Al Khikani FH. Prophylaxis and therapeutic ability of inactivated dermatophytic vaccine against dermatophytoses in rabbit as an animal model. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;9:45  Back to cited text no. 22


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