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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-16

Obstetric Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated with Fibroids: A Prospective Observational Study

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Suhail Rafiq
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MTSM.MTSM_39_20

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Background: Fibroid is the most frequently recorded benign, monoclonal smooth muscle tumor of the uterus, affecting 20%–60% women of reproductive age. Being remarkably common, fibroids are an important health concern. Fibroids are the most frequent indication for the performance of hysterectomy. The health-care consequences of these tumors are substantial both for the mother as well as the fetus. Objective: The objective is to study the obstetric outcome in pregnancies complicated with uterine fibroids. Materials and Methods: This is an observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Soura, Srinagar, from May 2019 to February 2020. A prospective evaluation of a series of 28 antenatal patients presenting with fibroids (>1 cm), who delivered in our hospital was done. Maternal age, parity, size of fibroid, type of fibroid, complications during pregnancy, and mode of delivery were noted. Ultrasonogram was done at booking visit and during subsequent visits to assess the size of the fibroid and degeneration. Obstetric outcome was assessed in terms of abortion, premature delivery, malpresentation, abruption, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), subinvolution, and puerperal pyrexia. Fetal outcome was assessed in terms of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low-birth weight, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions. Results: Majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 25–29 years (35.7%), majority 19 (67.9%) were multigravida, most 17 (60.7%) of the fibroids were >3 cm in size. There were 2 (7.1%) cases of miscarriage, 6 (21.4%) cases of malpresentation, abruption in 2 (7.1%) cases, 3 (10.7%) had PPH and only 1 (3.6%) needed blood transfusion. A total of 18 (69.2%) patients delivered by lower segment caesarean section and 8 (30.7%) had vaginal delivery. Of 26 babies, 6 (23.1%) had low-birthweight, 2 (7.7%) were IUGR and there were 2 (7.7%) NICU admissions. Conclusion: Even though most of the fibroids in pregnancy are asymptomatic but such pregnancies should be considered as high risk pregnancies. Hence, pregnancy has to be cautiously screened in the antenatal period, through regular follow-up, to detect any adverse obstetric complications thereby improving fetomaternal outcome. Our study also suggests that reduction in fibroid size pre-pregnancy may play a vital role in preventing maternal and fetal complications which became inevitable once pregnancy reaches advanced gestation.

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