|LETTER TO EDITOR
|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 88-89
Roopesh Jain, Archana Tiwari
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||11-May-2020|
|Date of Decision||16-May-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||22-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||14-Jul-2020|
Dr. Roopesh Jain
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Airport Bypass Road, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Jain R, Tiwari A. Monograph: Luteolin. Matrix Sci Med 2020;4:88-9
Luteolin (3′,4′, 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone), the flavone subclass of flavonoids (with the principal yellow crystalline appearance), typically occurs as glycosylated forms in several plant products including celery, Chamomile tea, green pepper, and Perilla leaf, and as an aglycone in Perilla seeds. Other dietary sources include artichoke, broccoli, carrots, chicory greens, dandelion, kohlrabi, olive oil, peppermint, pumpkin, rosemary, navel oranges, oregano, radicchio, red leaf lettuce, and thyme. Luteolin was also reported in Achillea millefolium (commonly known as yarrow), Erigeron canadensis (horseweed or Canadian horseweed), Limonium sinuatum (known as wavyleaf sea lavender), Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), Reseda luteola (the plant known as dyer's rocket or dyer's weed), Satureja obovata (Savory or Bean herb), and Vitex rotundifolia (the round leaf chaste tree or beach vitex).
French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul isolated luteolin in its pure form in 1829. Arthur George Perkin proposed the structure for luteolin in 1896 and the structure was confirmed in 1900 when Stanislaw Kostanecki and his team synthesized it. Luteolin is a tetrahydroxyflavone in which the four hydroxy groups are located at positions 3', 4' 5 and 7. It is sparingly soluble in water, but soluble in alkali. The IUPAC name for luteolin is 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, while synonyms include 3',4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone, 5, 7, 3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, digitoflavone, flacitran, luteoline, luteolol, and salifazide. Its chemical and physical properties are reported in [Table 1].
Luteolin is thought to play an important role as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and being active against several cancers. Luteolin scavenges free radicals and protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced damage. It exerts anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and IL-17. The anticancer activity of luteolin is associated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Luteolin sensitizes cancer cells to therapeutic-induced cytotoxicity through suppressing cell survival pathways, i.e., phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, nuclear factor-kappa B, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein., It also stimulates apoptosis pathways induced by the tumor suppressor protein p53. Studies have shown that luteolin possesses beneficial neuroprotective immunomodulatory properties. Luteolin has demonstrated neuroprotective effect in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease rat model ameliorating spatial learning and memory impairment. In a 26-week, open-label, pilot study, a unique mixture of luteolin, quercetin, and rutin in a liposomal formulation of olive kernel oil was tested in children with autism spectrum disorders (4–10 years old, n = 50) and reported significant improvement in adaptive functioning and overall behavior with no major adverse effects. Luteolin also improved “brain fog,” characterized by reduced attention span, memory, and learning in mastocytosis patients. Literature also reported that luteolin may help in allergies, atherosclerosis and other vascular disorders, cataract and vascular eye disorders, chronic inflammatory conditions (respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, etc.), diabetes and obesity, neoplastic disorders, skin allergy/inflammatory disorders, and skin cancer.,
Intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of luteolin in rats was calculated 411 mg/kg and >5000 mg/kg, respectively. The good tolerability and potential effectiveness of luteolin in clinical trials suggests its future potential.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Imran M, Rauf A, Abu-Izneid T, Nadeem M, Shariati MA, Khan IA, et al
. Luteolin, a flavonoid, as an anticancer agent: A review. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;112:108612.
López-Lázaro M. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin. Mini Rev Med Chem 2009;9:31-59.
Kanai K, Nagata S, Hatta T, Sugiura Y, Sato K, Yamashita Y, et al
. Therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats. J Vet Med Sci 2016;78:1381-4.
Cordaro M, Cuzzocrea S, Crupi R. An update of palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin effects in preclinical and clinical studies of neuroinflammatory events. Antioxidants (Basel) 2020;9:216.
Taliou A, Zintzaras E, Lykouras L, Francis K. An open-label pilot study of a formulation containing the anti-inflammatory flavonoid luteolin and its effects on behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Ther 2013;35:592-602.
Theoharides TC, Asadi S, Panagiotidou S. A case series of a luteolin formulation (NeuroProtek®
) in children with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2012;25:317-23.
Dewanjee S, Chakraborty P, Mukherjee B, de Feo V. Plantbased antidiabetic nanoformulations: The emerging paradigm for effective therapy. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:2217.
Gentile D, Fornai M, Pellegrini C, Colucci R, Benvenuti L, Duranti E, et al
. Luteolin prevents cardiometabolic alterations and vascular dysfunction in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:1094.