|LETTER TO EDITOR
|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 85
Biological monograph: Myristica fragrans
Roopesh Jain, Archana Tiwari
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||22-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||07-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||14-Jul-2020|
Dr. Roopesh Jain
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Airport Bypass Road, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Jain R, Tiwari A. Biological monograph: Myristica fragrans. Matrix Sci Med 2020;4:85
Myristica fragrans is a tree indigenous to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, and is widespread in Asia, Caribbean, and South America. The tree is 10–20 m tall and its seed is the source of spice nutmeg, whereas mace is obtained from the aril. The chemical composition of the seed includes 4-terpineol, citronellol, elemicin, isoeugeunol, limonene, linalool, methoxyeugeunol, methyl eugeunol, myrislignan, myristicin, sabinene, safrole, terpinolene, fatty acid trimyristin, α-myrcena, α-pinene, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, α-thujene, β-asarone, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, and macelignan in the rhizome.
The common names comprise – English: Nutmeg; Hindi: Jaiphal and Javitri; Sanskrit: Jatisasya and Jatiphala; Assamese: Jaiphal and Kanivish; Bengali: Jaiphala and Jaitri; Gujarati: Jaiphala and Jayfar; Kannada: Jadikai, Jaykai, and Jaidikai; Kashmiri: Jafal; Malayalam: Jatika; Tamil: Sathikkai, Jathikkai, Jatikkai, Jadhikai, and Jadhikkai; Telugu: Jajikaya; and Urdu: Jauzbuwa and Jaiphal.
Nutmeg seeds have been used in traditional medicine as a general tonic for the brain, heart, and for general and sexual debility. Their pharmacological properties include aromatic stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-emetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, analgesic, aphrodisiac, carminative, digestive, orexigenic, and sedative. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India mentions the following therapeutic uses of seeds of M. fragrans: Atisara (diarrhea), Swasa (asthma), Chardi (vomiting), Kasa (cough), Pinasa (chronic rhinitis), Grahani (irritable bowel syndrome), Mukharoga (diseases affecting the oral cavity), and Sukrameha (spermaturia). The use of M. fragrans is reported in the Unani Pharmacopoeia of India in different medications such as Jawarish Pudina Wilaiti and Jawarish Bisbasa. It is also reported in the Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India.
Nutmeg is considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) according to the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 (Sec. 182.10 and Sec. 182.20) in the United States. The acute oral LD50 of nutmeg oil in rats has been reported to be 2620 mg/kg. Nutmeg aqueous extract showed no lethal effect at least up to a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight in rats, indicating that LD50 if any should be higher than this dose. In a clinical study, nutmeg gel has shown good efficacy as pulpotomy medicament over a follow-up of 12 months. A single-blind, randomized controlled 3-month study reported the efficacy and safety of arils of M. fragrans for the subjective improvement of mixed urinary incontinence symptoms and for the improvement of women's health-related quality of life.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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] [Full text]
Mali S, Singla S, Sharma A, Gautam A, Niranjan B, Jain S. Efficacy of Myristica fragrans
and Terminalia chebula
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